Middlesex County, Virginia
There are thirteen active mine permits in Middlesex County. Eight are licensed to produce sand, one is licensed to produce sand and clay, and four are licensed to produce sand and gravel. All of these products are used as construction aggregate. In 2006, a total of 121,236 tons of sand, clay, and gravel were produced in Middlesex County with an estimated value of over $1,029,000. There were 20 workers employed at these operations in 2006 (10 production workers and 10 office workers) receiving wages of almost $61,000. The documents below provide the locations and other information about these active operations. Based on the DGMR Publication 174, Digital Representation of the 1993 Geologic Map of Virginia, the aggregates are produced from the Shirley Formation, the Windsor Formation, and the Chesapeake Group. The attached geologic map indicates where these formations are exposed and accessible. Information on these mining operations is available from the Virginia Division of Mineral Mining in Charlottesville, Virginia (434-951-6310).
There are 38 identified historical sand and gravel pits that are currently inactive in Middlesex County. These historical pits are located in the Lynnhaven-Poquoson and Sedgefield members of the Tabb Formation, Shirley Formation, Windsor Formation, and the Chesapeake Group. The attached geologic map indicates where these formations are exposed and accessible. The locations of these historical operations are included below.
Between 1957 and 1967, two samples of clay materials were collected in Middlesex County and analyzed for potential uses. These samples were found suitable as raw materials for the manufacture of garden pottery and face brick (Johnson and Tyrrell, 1967). Descriptive locations are included in the relevant reference below.
Middlesex County Geologic Map
Middlesex County Geologic Map unit descriptions
Middlesex County Historical Mineral Resource Sites
Middlesex County Mineral Production, 1986-present
Middlesex County Active Mines, 1990-present
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Johnson, Stanley S., and Tyrrell, Miles E., 1967, Analyses of clay and related materials-eastern counties: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Mineral Resources Report 8, p. 134-137.
Mixon, R. B., Berquist, C. R., Jr., Newell, W. L., Johnson, G. H., Powars, D. S., Schindler, J. S., and Rader, E. K., 1989, Geologic map and generalized cross sections of the Coastal Plain and adjacent parts of the Piedmont, Virginia: U. S. Geological Survey Map I-2033, 2 sheets.
Peebles, Pamela C., Johnson, Gerald H., and Berquist, C. R., 1984, The Middle and Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of the outer coastal plain, southeastern Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Virginia Minerals, Vol. 30, No. 2, p. 13-22.
Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 2003, Digital representation of the 1993 geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 174, compact disc.
Bird, S. O., 1985, Eden in Peril: The troubled waters of the Chesapeake Bay: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 56, 27 pages.