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Mineral Resources

Virginia’s natural mineral resources represent a valuable asset and significantly contribute to the economic well-being of the Commonwealth. 

Industrial Materials

Clay Minerals     Feldspar

Gypsum      Heavy Mineral Sands

Kyanite     Iron Oxide Pigments

Crushed Stone     Industrial Sands

Sand & Gravel     Vermiculite



Gold     Silver     Copper

Lead     zinc     Iron

Manganese     Nickel     Titanium

Tin     Tungsten



What is the economic value of non-fuel mineral resources mined in Virginia?

In 2012, the total estimated value of non-fuel minerals produced in Virginia was about $1.24 billion.  Crushed stone accounted for $654 million, or about 53 percent of the total direct value, while sand and gravel construction aggregate accounted for an estimated $86 million or about 7 percent (Figure 1).  The estimated value of common clay and shale produced in 2012 was nearly $10 million, just less than 1 percent of the total.  Industrial minerals include kyanite, feldspar, fuller’s earth, amazonite and other semi-precious gemstones, iron-oxide pigments, feldspar, salt, high-purity silica sand, heavy mineral sands (titanium and zirconium concentrates), chemical and agricultural carbonates, dimension stone, and vermiculite.  Together these commodities accounted for about $487 million or 39 percent of the total value of non-fuel minerals production in 2012.

Thermal Springs of Virginia


What minerals are mined in Virginia?

DMME has regulatory oversight for minerals mined in Virginia.

The Division of Mineral Mining administers both health and safety and surface mining reclamation regulatory programs for all non-coal mineral mining operations. Statewide, there are approximately 430 non-fuel mines covering about 17,000 acres, including quarries, sand and gravel pits, and other surface and underground mining operations.

The Division of Mines administers the health and safety regulatory program for surface and underground coal mining operations. Statewide, there are approximately 80 coal mines, including surface and underground mining operations

The Division of Mined Land Reclamation administers the surface mine regulatory program for coal mining.