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Richmond County, Virginia

There are five active mine permits in Richmond County, all of which are licensed to produce sand and gravel. In 2005, 4,017 tons of sand were produced in Richmond County. Based on the DGMR Publication 174, Digital Representation of the 1993 Geologic Map of Virginia, the sand was produced from the Bacons Castle Formation, the Sedgefield Member, the Chesapeake Group formations, and undifferentiated Quaternary and Tertiary deposits. The geologic map below indicates where these formations are exposed and accessible. Information on these mining operations is available from the Virginia Division of Mineral Mining in Charlottesville, Virginia (434-951-6310).

There are 19 identified historical sand and gravel pits that are currently inactive in Richmond County. There is one diatomaceous earth prospect located in the Calvert Formation, which is the lowest member of the Chesapeake Group. The results of an analysis of one sample collected in Richmond County from the diatom-bearing bed were published in Pharr, 1965. Uses of diatomite include filter aids, fillers, absorbents, insulations, and cement (

Eleven samples of clay materials collected in Richmond County were tested between 1957 and 1978, and 7 were found suitable as raw materials for the manufacture of mineral filler, brick, tile, and structural clay products (Sweet, 1988). Descriptive locations are included in the relevant references below.

Richmond County Geologic Map
Richmond County Geologic Map unit descriptions
Richmond County Historical Mineral Resource Sites
Richmond County Mineral Production, 1986-present
Richmond County Active Mines, 1990-present

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Johnson, Stanley S., and Tyrrell, Miles E., 1967, Analyses of clay and related materials-eastern counties: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Mineral Resources Report 8, p. 166-173.

Sweet, Palmer C., 1988, Clay material testing program, 1957-1986: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 76, 46 pages and 1 sheet.

Sweet, Palmer C., 1982, Virginia clay material resources: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 36, p. 122-127.

Diatomaceous earth
Pharr, R. F., 1965, Diatomaceous sediments in Virginia: Virginia Minerals vol. 11, no. 3, p. 25-31.

General geology
Milici, Robert C., Costain, John K., Coruh, Cahit, and Pappano, Phillip A., 1995, Structural section across the Atlantic coastal plain, Virginia and southeasternmost Maryland: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 140, 2 sheets.

Mixon, R. B., Berquist, C. R., Jr., Newell, W. L., Johnson, G. H., Powars, D. S., Schindler, J. S., and Rader, E. K., 1989, Geologic map and generalized cross sections of the Coastal Plain and adjacent parts of the Piedmont, Virginia: U. S. Geological Survey Map I-2033, 2 sheets.

Ruhle, James L., 1962, Guidebook to the Coastal Plain of Virginia north of the James River: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Information Circular 6, 46 pages.

Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 2003, Digital representation of the 1993 geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 174, compact disc.

Water quality
Bird, S. O., 1985, Eden in Peril: The troubled waters of the Chesapeake Bay: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 56, 27 pages.