Caroline County, Virginia
Caroline County is located on the western margin of the Coastal Plain province where Cretaceous through Recent sands and gravels onlap the older igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province. The Taylorsville Basin, a Triassic-age sedimentary basin is also present in the subsurface of Caroline County, overlain by the Cretaceous through Recent sands and gravels.
There are six current mine permits in Caroline County, five of which are permitted for production of sand and gravel and one permitted for production of granite/gneiss as crushed stone. Three of the permitted sites are actively producing sand and gravel while the crushed stone quarry has not reported any production in recent years. The three active sand and gravel pits produced approximately 868,765 short tons of product from Cretaceous-Recent deposits in 2007. Using average commodity prices reported in the 2006 USGS Minerals Yearbook, it is estimated that the value of 2007 production was about $5,099,650. Annual production reports from the operators indicate that 19 workers were employed in Caroline County quarries and pits in 2007 with reported total wages paid of $823,327. Subcontractor workers and wages are not included in these figures.
The principal uses of sand, gravel, and crushed stone are road base, asphalt, and concrete. Because sand, gravel, and crushed stone are relatively high-volume and low-cost commodities, there is a significant benefit in terms of transportation costs by having relatively local sources for road and construction projects.
Historically, sand and gravel has been the major natural resource extracted in Caroline County. Following are some of the major inactive operations in the county:
- A and T Gravel & Sand Co.; south of Milford (1970?-1972)
- Bishop and Settle Pit; near Port Royal (1960s)
- Certified Aggregates; just W of Woodford (1970’s)
- Dyson Sand and Gravel Co.; SW of Milford (1950s)
- Gordon Torrence; E of Milford (1972-1979)
- J.P. Dillard Sand and Gravel Co.; NW of Woodford (1957-1965)
- J.R. Ford Sand Pit; near Port Royal (1964-1969)
- Lee Hy Paving Corp.; near Port Royal (1972-1977)
- L.S. Sorber; W of Woodford (1961-1969)
- Massaponax Sand and Gravel Corp; E of New Post (1922-1991)
- Mattaponi Sand and Gravel Co.; SE part of county (1960-1985)
- Port Royal Sand and Gravel Co.; W of Woodford (1968-1972)
- Pruitt Soil and Aggregates; SW of Milford (1972-1974)
- Quality Sand and Gravel, Inc.; S of Milford (1972-1977)
- Sam Finley, Inc.; W of Woodford (1971-1972)
- Torrence and Wright; SW of Milford (1960-1972)
Caroline County Geologic Map
Caroline County Geologic Map unit descriptions
Caroline County Historical Mineral Resource Sites
Caroline County Mineral Production, 2007
Caroline County Mineral Resource Industry Data, 2007
Caroline County Active Mine Permits, 2007
Virginia Mineral Production, 1986-present
Virginia County Active Mines, 1990-present
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Clark, William B., and Miller, Benjamin L., 1912, The physiography and geology of the coastal plain province of Virginia: Virginia Geological Survey Bulletin 004, p. 228.
Johnson, Stanley S., and Tyrrell, Miles E., 1967, Analyses of clay and related materials-eastern counties: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Mineral Resources Report 8, p. 92-98.
Sweet, Palmer C., 1986, Clay-material samples collected 1981-1984: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 68, pp. 20-22.
Clark, William B., and Miller, Benjamin L., 1912, The physiography and geology of the coastal plain province of Virginia: Virginia Geological Survey Bulletin 004, pp. 243-244.
Gas and Oil
Milici, R.C., Bayer, K.C., Pappano, P.A., Costain, J.K., Coruh, C., and Nolde, J.E., 1991, Preliminary geologic section across the buried part of the Taylorsville basin, Essex and Caroline counties, Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Open-File Report 91-1, 28 pp.
Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 2003, Digital representation of the 1993 geologic map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 174, compact disc.
Weems, Robert E., 1986, Geology of the Ashland quadrangle: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 64, map with text.
Clark, William B., and Miller, Benjamin L., 1912, The physiography and geology of the coastal plain province of Virginia: Virginia Geological Survey Bulletin 004, p. 248.
Marr, John D. Jr., and Ward, Lauck, W., 1987, Geology of the Caroline stone quarry: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Virginia Minerals V. 33 no. 4, pp 29-33.
Sand and Gravel
Gooch, Edwin O., and Wood, Robert S., 1960, Sources of aggregate used in Virginia highway construction: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Mineral Resources Report 1, p. 53-54.