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Mine operations in Virginia produced about 100 thousand short tons of kyanite and calcined kyanite products in 2017.

Kyanite extraction sites

Kyanite Mining Corporation (KMC), a privately owned company based in Dillwyn, Virginia is the world’s largest producer of industrial kyanite and calcined kyanite (mullite).  The company mines kyanite-bearing quartzites associated with felsic and mafic volcanic rocks of the Chopawamsic Formation in the central Virginia Piedmont region.  Of the vast resources located at Willis Mountain, kyanite generally makes up 10-40 percent of the host quartzite rock.  Current surface mining operations and processing facilities are located in eastern Buckingham County near the town of Dillwyn.  KMC states the annual production capacity at the Virginia operations to be about 150,000 tons (short tons) of commercial grade kyanite concentrates (>57 percent Al2O3, <0.75 percent Fe2O3), and 30,000 tons of calcined kyanite.  The company markets a range of milled kyanite and mullite products that are shipped by truck and rail to a wide variety of domestic and international customers.  Exports currently account for about one-half of KMC’s business.  In the 2017 annual production report to the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, KMC reported just over 100 thousand short tons of combined kyanite and calcined kyanite.


Kyanite Production 2000-2016

Annual production reported by mine operator


Kyanite, andalusite and sillimanite are polymorphic aluminum-silicate minerals with the same chemical formula, Al2SiO5, but different atomic structures and physical properties.  Mullite is a closely related mineral with the chemical formula Al6Si2O13 that occurs rarely in nature, but can be synthesized from kyanite and other alumina- and silica-enriched minerals using a thermal treatment process referred to as calcination.  Collectively, these minerals along with topaz (Al2SiOF2) and dumortierite (Al7(BO3)(SiO4)3O3) belong to the sillimanite minerals group, which are valued as industrial raw materials for the manufacture of heat and acid refractories for ceramics industries, precision castings, refractory additives and fillers, and other applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous foundry industries.  Due to the qualities of hardness, durability, and resistance to heat and chemical corrosion, exceptional specimens of the sillimanite minerals group are often marketed in the gemstone and jewelry industry. 


Kyanite and the other sillimanite minerals are common constituents in metamorphic rocks, typically making up a percent or two of the mineral composition of peraluminous gneisses and schists.  Economic deposits are found in a variety of geologic settings that include massive segregations in metamorphosed aluminous sediments, as stratiform replacements within foliated and nonfoliated quartzose rocks often associated with meta-volcanic strata, mineralized quartz veins and pegmatites, and in residual soils and placers.  Andalusite also occurs in hornfels and other thermally-altered pelitic rocks within contact metamorphic aureoles adjacent to intrusive stocks.  In the United States, economic and sub-economic concentrations of sillimanite minerals are known to occur in the western states of Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, and New Mexico as well as the Appalachian regions of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia.  Significant occurrences of kyanite and sillimanite are found in heavy mineral sand deposits in Florida.  Outside of the United States, mining and/or potentially significant resources of sillimanite minerals have been reported in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine, and Zimbabwe.

Additional information on global resources and production of kyanite and other sillimanite minerals may be found in a recent article in Mining Engineering, a monthly periodical published by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., (SME).


Kyanite Mining Corporation processing facility

One of Kyanite Mining Corporation’s processing facilities at Willis Mountain, Buckingham County.


Selected References:

Conley, J. F., and Marr, J. D., 1980, Evidence for the correlation of the kyanite quartzites of Willis and Woods mountains with the Arvonia Formation:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 27, p. 1-11.

Dixon, G. B., Jr., 1980, Kyanite mining in Virginia:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Virginia Minerals, v. 26, n. 1, p. 12.

Johnson, S. S., 1967, Virginia’s contribution to the kyanite – mullite industry:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Virginia Minerals, v. 13, n. 1, p. 1-7.

Jonas, A. I., and Watkins, J. H., 1932, Kyanite in Virginia, (Including) Geology of the kyanite belt of Virginia:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Bulletin 38, 52 p.

Lassetter, W.L., 2018, Kyanite, Andalusite, and Sillimanite: Mining Engineering, Vol 70, no. 7, p. 64-67. 

Marr, J. D., 1990, Geology of the Kyanite Deposits at Willis Mountain, Virginia, in Proceedings 26th Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 119, p. 129-134.

Tanner, A.O., 2018, Kyanite and Related Minerals: United States Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2018

Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, 1993, Geologic Map of Virginia: Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, scale 1:500,000.